Basically the difference in the two awards is that one is for illustrations (Caldecott), while the other is for literature (Newbery). That’s pretty much all you need to know, but here’s a little history and background on the two awards.
These awards, given annually, are much sought after. They are the most prestigious children’s book award; it’s like the Oscar and Emmy awards.
Created in 1938, the Caldecott Medal is awarded annually by the Association for Library Service to Children, a division of the American Library Association, to the artist of the most distinguished American picture book for children published that year. It was named in honor of nineteenth-century English illustrator Randolph Caldecott.
Created in 1922, the Newbery Medal is also awarded annually by the American Library Association for the most distinguished American children’s book published the previous year. It was named in honor of eighteenth-century English bookseller John Newbery.
Here is the complete list of the Caldecott winners since it’s creation: http://www.ala.org
Here is the complete list of Newberry award winners since it’s creation: www.ala.org
** I apologize. I accidentally put that the Newbery award is for illustrations. It is not. It is for literature. I have corrected it. Sorry for the misinformation.